Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering records
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Scope and Contents of the Collection
The Department of Nuclear Engineering was established at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) on July 1, 1958. However, study of Nuclear Engineering at MIT began as early as 1935. In 2000, the department developed the Center for Advanced Nuclear Engineering Systems along with the MIT Energy Laboratory (later renamed the MIT Energy Initiative). By 2004, the Department was renamed the Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering. This collection, spanning 1951 to 2009, includes meeting minutes, correspondence, reports, publications, subject files, and other materials documenting the activities of the department. Records are divided into six series: Department Meetings, Visiting Committee, Department Historical Files, Subject Files, Records of Norman Rasmussen, and Publications.
Series 1, Department Meetings, comprises agendas, background materials, and meeting minutes arranged chronologically between 1968 and 2000. In addition to regular department meetings, it also includes correspondence and reports on the revision of requirements for advanced degrees in the department, spanning from 1970 to 1971, and records relating to department retreats, spanning from 1993 to 1997.
Series 2, Visiting Committee, comprises reports, presentations, and correspondence generated by the Department of Nuclear Engineering and its Corporation appointed Visiting Committee. Materials in this series span from 1972 to 1992, and access is restricted for 50 years from date of creation by Institute Policy.
Series 3, Departmental Historical Files, largely consists of materials generated for department anniversaries and other materials relating to the development of the Department of Nuclear Engineering and span from 1958 to 2008. Included in this series is a speech given by former department head, Manson Benedict, on the 25th anniversary of the department, and optical media documenting the 50th anniversary symposium. The files from the optical dics are the only digital material in the collection, consisting of a film of the history of the department and procedings and digitized historical photographs. They consist of an ISO disk image of the DVD and html and PDF files from the CD.
The bulk of the material in this series consists of the department’s “Historical data” file which is comprised of correspondence, reports, and publications documenting the history of nuclear engineering at MIT.
Series 4, Subject Files, include departmental records created between 1970 and 2000 during the tenures of the following department heads: Manson Benedict; Elias P. Gyftopoulis, Edward A. Mason, Kent F. Hansen, Norman C. Rasmussen, Neil E. Todreas, Mujid Kazimi, and Jeffrey P. Friedberg. Topics heavily documented in this series include program accreditation, Engineering Council meetings, long range planning, and faculty appointment proposals. Records in this series are arranged in a rough alphabetical order.
Series 5, Records of Norman C. Rasmussen, consists of materials generated by Rasmussen concerning the department and its faculty, and span from 1970 to 1996. The bulk of the material was generated after his term as department head ended in 1981. Records in this series were originally received as part of MC 542, Norman C. Rasmussen papers. Materials include correspondence, committee reports and background materials, meeting minutes, and curricula. A significant portion of material in this series documents work done for the MIT Reactor Safeguard Committee and the Institute Council for Environmental Health and Safety. Records in this series retain their original order.
Series 6, Publications, comprises reports generated by the Department of Nuclear Engineering and the Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems (CANES) between 1985 and 2009. The bulk of the reports in this series were published by CANES into four publication series: Advanced Nuclear Power Technology Program (MIT-ANP), Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technology and Policy Program (MIT-NFC), Nuclear Systems Enhanced Performance Program (MIT-NSP), and Nuclear Energy and Sustainability Program (MIT-NES). This series is arranged alpha-numerically by report number.
- Creation: 1951 - 2009
- Mason, Edward A. (Edward Archibald), 1924- (Person)
- Todreas, Neil E. (Person)
- Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Nuclear Engineering (Organization)
- Rasmussen, Norman C. (Person)
- Benedict, Manson (Person)
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Conditions Governing Use
Access to collections in the Department of Distinctive Collections is not authorization to publish. Please see the MIT Libraries Permissions Policy for permission information. Copyright of some items in this collection may be held by respective creators, not by the donor of the collection or MIT.
The Department of Nuclear Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) was established July 1, 1958. Research and education in nuclear engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology began in the Departments of Physics and Chemical Engineering as early as 1935. To foster education and research in the field, the Institute actively recruited personnel who had been involved in atomic energy projects during World War II. Nuclear science was not yet the domain of any single group of academics; mathematicians, scientists, and engineers worked together, often on specific applications, as they had during the war years. Many of the subjects offered and much of the research undertaken at the Institute was classified. Civilians and military personnel came to MIT primarily to acquire graduate training related to nuclear weapons and propulsion, but there was no organized program in this field for several years.
In 1946, the Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Engineering, later named the Laboratory for Nuclear Science (LNS), was established under the direction of professor of physics Jerrold R. Zacharias. The lab reported to the Department of Physics, but the personnel were drawn from many departments, including metallurgy and various engineering departments. Under the auspices of the lab, faculty members from throughout the Institute taught classes and supervised graduate research. Subjects included a classified course in nuclear reactor design and an introductory course in which approximately 30 pioneers in the field of nuclear energy gave a series of unclassified lectures. Other early members of the lab include Clark C. Goodwin, a physicist who taught nuclear reactor design; Edwin R. Gilliland, a professor of chemical engineering; Robley D. Evans, a physicist who taught treatment of nuclear fusion; and Albert R. Kaufman, a metallurgist who directed classified research and taught about the metallurgy of nuclear materials.
In 1948, the Department of Chemical Engineering established an engineering practice school at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, to solve problems that arose at the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) facilities. William A. Reed was the first director, and was succeeded by Thomas H. Pigford in 1950. In 1948, Walter C. Whitman, then head of the Department of Chemical Engineering, directed a classified "summer study," called Project Lexington, to evaluate the feasibility and problems of alternative ideas for nuclear propelled aircraft. The MIT Research Laboratory of Electronics (RLE) was also a partner in the project, which was staffed by scientists from many institutions.
In 1950, the Institute decided to focus instruction and research in nuclear engineering within one department. The Department of Chemical Engineering was chosen as it was the department most involved in nuclear related activities. The department appointed faculty members with nuclear experience and developed a curriculum leading to advanced degrees. Nuclear engineering was established as Course 22 in the Department of Chemical Engineering.
In January of 1951, Manson Benedict became MIT's first professor of nuclear engineering. Pigford, who transferred back to MIT from Oak Ridge in 1952, and Evans also taught in the program. In 1954, the degree of Master of Nuclear Engineering was first awarded and the first Doctor of Science degree was granted in 1956.
During the mid-1950s the department grew and expanded the scope of its research and instruction. A significant part of the program involved summer studies such as Project Dynamo, headed by Ascher Shapiro from the Department of Mechanical Engineering, and Project Separation, directed by Professor J. Edward Vivian of the Department of Chemical Engineering.
In 1955, the Institute made two significant decisions: to offer a doctoral program in nuclear engineering and to build a first class university research reactor. Tom Cantwell was hired as business manager for the reactor project; Theos J. (Tommy) Thompson joined the faculty of MIT to take charge of the reactor project; and Edward Barnett came to MIT from Brookhaven National Laboratory to serve as reactor engineer. The AEC received the application for a permit in early 1956 and on June 6, 1956, ground was broken for the new reactor. The reactor, named MITR I, was completed in 1958 and on June 9 the AEC issued an operating license. On July 21, 1958, the reactor began to operate.
Course XXII separated from the Department of Chemical Engineering and became the Department of Nuclear Engineering on July 1, 1958. This was partly warranted by the sufficiently divergent interests and activities of the nuclear engineering faculty and students from the chemical engineering department and partly by the increased size of the program. Manson Benedict was named the first department head. In the five years that followed, the new focus on domestic applications of nuclear power production propelled the department to double the number of subjects and to increase the number of faculty from ten to sixteen. During this period, the first civilian nuclear power plants in the United States went into operation and many faculty members served as advisors to the AEC through its committees. Some of the more notable of the many research projects undertaken by the department during this period included: the Heavy Water Lattice Project funded by the AEC (1959- 1967); the Organic Coolant Project, also funded by the AEC (1960- 1968); the construction of a bent quartz crystal spectrometer to measure the energies of gamma rays emitted when different nuclides absorbed neutrons emitted from the reactor (1958- 1963); and the construction of a medical therapy facility in the early 1960s, which was funded by the Rockefeller Foundation.
Between 1963 and 1968, student enrollment increased to 130. The department offered a number of postdoctoral fellowships funded by the Ford Foundation. In 1963, a second heat exchanger and cooling tower was installed at the MIT reactor to permit a power increase to five megawatts. One of the more salient projects of this period was the SIFTOR (Safety Information for the Technology of Reactors) project, the objective of which was to provide guidance for nuclear reactor designers, operators, and safety evaluation groups. With NASA support through the MIT Center for Space Research, Edward A. Mason and Kent F. Hansen made design studies for a hydrogen cooled nuclear reactor for propulsion of space vehicles such as the NERVA engine that was being developed by the AEC. Gamma ray detection was updated through the use of a newly developed resolution, triple coincidence lithium drifted germanium gamma ray detector. The Reactor Lattice Project, later referred to as the Reactor Physics Project, completed its eight year program in 1967. In 1966 a special summer session geared toward professionals, Nuclear Power Reactor Safety, was offered for the first time.
Beginning in 1970, the department broadened its undergraduate curriculum and by 1975 offered a full undergraduate program. The first bachelor's degree was awarded in 1977. In parallel with increasing national concerns about the societal effects of advanced technology, the department placed increased emphasis on the historical, economic, environmental, safety, and policy aspects of both nuclear and conventional energy production. This new emphasis enabled the department to participate in joint research projects with other departments and research centers, notably the Research Laboratory of Electronics, the Energy Laboratory, and the Center for Policy Analysis. The new emphasis on environmental and policy related topics in conjunction with the undergraduate curriculum permitted the department to nearly double its subject offerings from 27 to 52.
One of the most significant experimental projects during this period was the reconstruction of the reactor, initiated in 1967. The redesigned reactor, MITR II, had a more compact core and was cooled by light water. The reactor began to operate again on August 14, 1975. Another significant project with long term applications for the department was ALCATOR, a plasma experiment. It was conceived by Bruno Coppi of the Department of Physics and was funded by the AEC and NSF. It was built at the Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory between 1971 and 1973.
In 1976, the federal government began to modify its strong support for the development of nuclear power. Dramatically rising energy costs caused a decline in the demand for new utility plants and the cancellation of projects already under construction. Because nuclear power plants were the bulk of new construction, the nuclear industry was especially hard hit. A growing anti nuclear movement that resulted in increased regulations for nuclear power plants was further fueled by the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station in Pennsylvania in 1979. Demand for nuclear engineers did not drop through this period, however, and the difficulties of the industry represented challenging research problems for the members of the program. Graduate enrollment remained high, at between 150 and 160 students.
Manson Benedict retired from the department in 1978. In 1982, the department reviewed the undergraduate program, determining that the program was still worthwhile in spite of low enrollment. In 1983, a new doctoral program was started by Gordon L. Brownell and Alan C. Nelson in radiological sciences to supplement the medical radiological physics program. Also in 1983, a new master's program in health physics was introduced under the leadership of Otto K. Harling. Research projects pertaining to reactor engineering included work in the areas of thermal hydraulics and heat transfer; thermal hydraulic computer codes; and interface between man and the machine as applied to nuclear power stations.
Recognizing that problems encountered in the operation of nuclear power plants are related to materials science, the department also strengthened its program in materials research. In 1978, an Institute decision to integrate activities resulted in the creation of the Plasma Fusion Center. The center was first directed by Lawrence M. Lidsky. The center permitted more effective support for major projects such as ALCATOR, and important advances in fusion research were made by department members. Reactor physics remained essential to nuclear engineering training, and the basic subject material did not change much during this period.
In 1981, Neil E. Todreas became head of the department. In 1982, under Todreas, the department defined as its four fold mission: (1) providing education, through teaching and research, to individuals from the U.S. and abroad interested in the peaceful uses of nuclear reactions; (2) identifying and developing new scientific and engineering approaches to practical application of nuclear phenomena, and translating these approaches to education programs; (3) contributing to a thorough understanding of nuclear energy and radiation in national and international communities; and (4) contributing to a thorough understanding of the issues which will determine the role of nuclear power in meeting domestic and world energy needs. In the same year Richard Lester launched a major new research project in the area of nuclear power plant design innovation. The Nuclear Power Plant Innovation Project, which received NSF funding the following year, proposed to explore the role of nuclear power plant design innovations in increasing the attractiveness of the nuclear option to U.S. electric utilities in the 1990s.
By the late 1980s, research in the department was divided roughly into 40 percent fission, much of which was focused on next generation nuclear reactors; 25 percent fusion; 25 percent radiation science and technology; and 10 percent energy economics and policy. In 1990, the department began Know Nukes, a semi annual newsletter for faculty, alumni, and students. Also in 1990, the department established the Advanced Nuclear Power Reactor Program, and two years later hosted the first MIT International Conference on the Next Generation of Nuclear Power Technology. In 1993, a long range plan that called for the consolidation of the fission and fusion areas into an "energy" area and shifted more resources to radiation science and technology applications in the environmental, industrial, and biomedical areas was completed. To implement the plan, the department undertook a broad review of the graduate curriculum with the intention of creating a core curriculum for all graduate studies prior to specialization. The undergraduate curriculum had already been organized into two tracks: "energy" and "radiation for medicine and industry."
The department expanded its opportunities for professional education by offering a one week course on management issues of nuclear power plants in June of 1993 and a five week course, co sponsored by the National Academy for Nuclear Training, designed for utility executives, called Reactor Technology Summer Program for Utility Executives. The special summer session, Nuclear Power Reactor Safety, which started in 1966, was still popular in the summer of 1994. In 1993, graduate enrollment remained around 150 students and undergraduate enrollment fluctuated between 25 and 40 students. Also in 1993, Professors Harling, Allan Henry, David Lanning, John Meyer, and John Bernard undertook studies to upgrade and relicense MITR II.
Major centers and labs associated with the department in 1994 included the Laboratory for Nuclear Science, the Nuclear Reactor Laboratory, and the Plasma Fusion Center.
In 2000, the Center for Advanced Nuclear Energy Systems (CANES) was developed jointly by the Department of Nuclear Engineering and the MIT Energy Laboratory (now the MIT Energy Initiative). It opened in September 2000 with Mujid S. Kazimi serving as its first director. Research programs at the center focus on the development and application of methods for the design, operation, and regulation of current and advanced nuclear reactors and fuel cycles.
In the fall of 2004 the department proposed to change its name to Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering to reflect more accurately the range of research of its faculty and the interests of its students. In December 2004, the Executive Committee of the Corporation approved the name change.
Heads of the department
- Manson Benedict
- Elias P. Gyftopoulis, Acting Head
- Edward A. Mason
- 1975 January-July
- Kent F. Hansen, Acting Head
- Norman C. Rasmussen
- Neil E. Todreas
- Mujid S. Kazimi
- Jeffrey P. Friedberg
- Ian H. Hutchinson
- Richard K. Lester
- 2015-present (as of 2017)
- Dennis Whyte
27.3 Cubic Feet (18 record cartons, 31 manuscript boxes)
1.2 Gigabytes (50 digital files)
Language of Materials
Materials are stored off-site. Advance notice is required for use.
Immediate Source of Acquisition
Digital files originally on DVD and CD. Joe Carrano transferred these files off of the media and downloaded a caption file for the video from the NSE Department YouTube page.
Processing Information note
Some collection descriptions are based on legacy data and may be incomplete or contain inaccuracies. Description may change pending verification. Please contact the MIT Department of Distinctive Collections if you notice any errors or discrepancies.
Digital archivist, Joe Carrano, transferred the digital material from the optical discs in the collection. The DVD content was transferred using the Brasero program to an ISO disk image. He also downloaded a caption file created by the department. He transferred the CD using the CCA SIP creator tool.
- Preliminary Inventory to the Records of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering
- Chris Tanguay
- Description rules
- Describing Archives: A Content Standard
- Language of description
- Script of description
- Spring 2017: Significant accession and series updates added
- 2021: Additional publications added to the collection.
- 2022 March: Digital archivist, Joe Carrano, updated finding aid to reflect digital media transfer accession 2022-054
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